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On Good Manners Abroad and at Home - Педагогика
When abroad, study and respect local customs. If you are in a foreign country and know only one foreign word, use it. If not, learn one! People will appreciate your trying to speak their language. It is a sure road to friendship.
When you are in a foreign country, do not forget that your behaviour will be considered typical of that of your native land. Good manners will be appreciated the world over, so do not fail to be polite, courteous and well-mannered.
Be neat and tidy in your clothes. Don't go about in dirty footwear. Don't sit, stand or walk with hands in your pockets. Don't eat fruit, ice cream or anything else in the street, in the shop or in public transport.
No matter where you are, loud laughter and talking are signs of bad manners.
A real gentleman never forgets to rise when a lady comes up to him and addresses him. He will never remain seated when a lady is standing.
Always come in time. Punctuality is essential when keeping an appointment whether you are meeting friends for a drink or whether you are having a business talk.
When an English businessman expects you to come to a business talk or a conference, be punctual. He will be surprised if you come fifteen minutes before your time and annoyed if you are five minutes late. Avoid getting into the habit of arriving everywhere late. If you can arrive regularly late, you might just as easily arrive regularly on time.
Task 1. What recommendations would you give a person who is going to Britain for the first time?
“Thank you” is, perhaps, the most important phrase in English. It is the example of good manners everybody learns when a child. The same is true to other cultures, though the notion of "good manners" differs from country to country. What is accepted as a cultural standard in one society might be regarded as an unacceptable behavior in another. As the English say: “Every country has its customs”.
Fundamentally the basis of good manners is consideration for others, but all civilized societies have added to their basic rule various forms of social observances [зд. условностей] which are expressed by word and behaviour. Different societies have their own expectations of behaviour and their own attitudes towards a whole range of things, such as a family, work, leisure, etc.
It seems important that every person realizes that there is not one fixed or correct way of doing things, but that there are many equally different and valid [зд. приемлемые] ways of living. Visitors to a country should develop understanding and respect for the target culture [культура, которую (они) изучают]. They need to become good observers, sensitive to linguistic and non-linguistic behavior of native-speakers in order to avoid cross-cultural [межкультурные] misunderstandings. The best way to behave in a country you are visiting is to follow the English proverb: “When in Rome, do as the Romans do”.
• It is normal to shake hands in Britain when you meet someone for the first time. It is not usual to kiss.
• It is not necessary to arrive with a present if you are a paying guest in a British home. On the other hand, your host family will be very impressed if you do!
• Use your host family's first names only if they encourage you to.
• "How are you?" is not a question about your health, but part of the greeting. You shouldn't reply: "I've got a headache" or "I feel bad". If you wish you will say it later in the conversation, but not when you are greeting a person. When you answer the question "How are you", it's polite not only to say "Fine" or "Very well", but to ask in your return "And how are you?" or simply "And you?" Reply: ‘Thank you’.
Congratulations is used when someone has got engaged, got married, passed an examination, passed a driving test, got promotion, had a baby. ‘Congratulations’ is also used when someone is celebrating a special birthday. The most important birthdays for British people are 18, 21, 70, 80 etc. Special wedding anniversaries are 25th (Silver) and 50th (Golden).
• If you are sitting in British home and you want to leave the room for any reason, your host will expect you to say where you are going - even if it is obvious. If you leave the room without explaining, people think you are ill or upset for some reason. If you listen to your host family, you will almost certainly notice that they always say where they are going when they leave the room - even if they don't know they do it! Here are some of the things you may want to say: Would you excuse me, I think I'd better go and do my work.
I'm just going to write a few postcards. Even if you are just going to the toilet, you say something:
Excuse me a moment.
Excuse me, I'm just going upstairs.
Excuse me, I'll just go you-know-where.
• Pubs in Britain are not the same as pubs in your country. They are not cafés. If you are with a British friend who buys you a drink, you should offer to buy the next one. It is unusual for each person in a group to order his/her own drink individually. It is more common for one person to order for everyone.
• It is very important at the end of an evening, that you do not just stand up and announce that you are leaving. If you do that, your host will think that there is something wrong - perhaps he has upset you. British people usually say at least twice that they are going to leave. There is usually ten minutes - or longer - between the two. You can say any of the following:
Goodness, is that the time!
I'll have to be going.
I must be going soon.
I really will have to go now.
I really must go.
Usually you use two different expressions - one the first time, one-the second time. The ones with -ing are usually used first and the ones without -ing when you are really ready to go. Here are a couple of useful phrases you may need before you leave:
May I call a taxi, please?
May I just use the loo before I go?
It's common knowledge (общеизвестно) that in the British culture it is inappropriate [неуместно] to give one's opinion in a categorical manner. The examples of expressing disagreement are a good illustration of it. The art of discussion is based on several main skills, namely, making suggestions, giving opinions, agreeing, disagreeing, and expressing doubt, enthusiasm. How to do it best in English? This is some advice about discussion techniques.
I suggest we discuss it now.
I would suggest we consider the problem of...
I'd like to suggest (propose)...
If I could just propose [suggest]...
Could I make a suggestion?
Could I make a point here?
I wonder if I might suggest (propose)...
Wouldn't it be a good idea to... ?
Don't you think it might be a good idea to...
I suppose we might (could)...
It seems to me that we could...
Why don't we...?
Asking for Opinions
What's your opinion, Mr. Morgan?
Mr. Trade, what do you think about it?
Do you agree, Mary?
What are your views on this, Nora?
Don't you agree, Tony?
Don't you think so, Mrs. Smith?
Does anyone object?
I agree with you (= I'm of the same opinion)
I agree to your proposal (= I say "yes")
I totally agree that...
I couldn't agree with you more... (No doubt) it's a good idea and...
That's a good point. I think you are right.
I doubt it.
I doubt if it’s possible.
I'm not at all sure that...
I'm not quite certain that...
I don't think it's realistic. Could be/ might be...
Please, notice that you need to be very polite when disagreeing with someone in English - even with someone you know quite well.
That's a good idea, but (and)...
Yes, that's quite true, but (and)...
I'm afraid I can't agree with you on that.
Well, you have a point there, but..
Perhaps, but don't you think that...
I see what you mean, but...
I'm not sure I quite agree...
If you know someone very well, you can disagree more directly using expressions like these:
I can't agree with you here!
I'm afraid I disagree with you.
I don't agree at all!
You can't be serious!
It's quite difficult to express an opinion immediately. Most people - both native speakers and those who learn English - hesitate a lot during a conversation. The worst way to hesitate is with silence. Silence destroys communication. People might think you either don't understand them, or aren't interested in what they are saying, or are just impolite. There are some ways in English to express hesitation. Here are some of them:
Er... In fact...
Well... You see...
You know... Let’ s see now...
How shall I put it? It's like this, you see...
The thing is... ... sort of...
The fact is... ...kind of...
Sometimes we have to interrupt people when they are speaking. It's important to do it politely not to offend the speakers. If you break in at the wrong time, you may be considered aggressive. The end of the silence seems to be the right place to break in. Here are some useful techniques for interrupting.
InterruptingMore formal Excuse my interrupting you... If I could just come in here... Less formal Sorry to interrupt, but... I'd just like to say that... By the way... (to change the subject) That reminds me ... um
Task 2. Talk on the Topic:
Discussing English Behaviour and English Character.
Task 3. Suggestions for oral discussions and dialogues:
1. You have just returned from England and are telling your friends about English customs.
2. Some Russian students have come to London. You tell your Russian friends about English social rules.
3. Say a few words what is acceptable and what is unacceptable in Britain.
When in Company...
When in company, don't keep looking at the watch as if you were impatient for the time to pass. When in company, don't open a book or a newspaper and begin reading to yourself. If you are tired of the company, withdraw, if not, humor it with your attention. No matter how monotonous conversation or how dull the company is yawning (зевание) is never permissible. To whisper in company is bad manners. If what you wish to say cannot be said aloud, reserve it for a suitable occasion. Talking with others, unless they are your close friends, keep to general subjects and avoid arguing. Two subjects are considered to be taboo in any form of polite social conversation, and these are religion and politics. In these fields everyone has their own very definite ideas, and it is very unlikely that they will be changed during the course of a short conversation. Everyone has a right to have his own personal opinion, but he shouldn't try to force it on others. The best topics for a light social conversation are art, sports and the hobby of the person you are speaking to with.
Talking about your troubles and diseases in company is bad taste. Don't talk over loudly or try to monopolize conversation. To be pleasant company be a good listener. Don't be indifferent or impatient when others are speaking. Don't talk about yourself or your affairs. If you wish to be popular, talk to people about what interests them, not about what interests you.
The British people like speaking about their home, children, family, pets, hobbies, leisure time, holidays, sports, the English language and the differences in accents between different parts of the country and many other things. Of course, there are people and people, and each person has his/her likes and dislikes or preferences in conversation, but the topics above could please most Britons.
There are some topics that should be avoided. For example, it is not considered good manners to talk about money, except to complain about the lack of it (их нехватке). You should never tell anyone how much you earn or will earn. In fact, it is good manners to explain how much you have saved buying the marvelous wine you are drinking. If this is very different from your country's cultural tradition, try to understand.
The more understanding you are, the more you will enjoy English. We should start our conversation with some pleasant and neutral topic which everybody is familiar with and feels relaxed when speaking about.
Цель - формирование системы знаний и представлений об образовании в России, Америке и Великобритании, формирование иноязычной коммуникативной компетенции.
Education in Russia
There are some pre-school institutions in Russia such as nursery school, kindergarten. Some children between two and five attend them and receive education in nursery classes.
Secondary education is mandatory in Russia. Children start school at the age of 6 and finish at 17. As a rule, a child attends the school located in the neighbourhood. However, there are also so-called "special" schools, offering more in-depth studies of the major European languages (English, French, or German), or the advanced courses in physics and mathematics.
The first stage of education is elementary school for grades 1 through 4. The second is secondary school for grades 5 through 9. After graduation from secondary school, students are given the choice of either continuing to attend the same school (high school; grades 10 and 11), or entering a vocational schools or trade school. Both vocational school and trade schools are meant to provide one, along with the certificate of secondary education, with a number of useful skills (e.g., those of an electrician, technical, or computer operator). One attends the former for two years and the latter for three or four.
Having completed one's secondary education, one can either become part of work force or go on to college ("institution of higher learning"). There are universities and so-called "institutes" in Russia.
To be admitted to an institution of higher education, one has to pass a series of oral and written tests. Grades in the certificate of secondary education are also taken in account.
Entry to higher institution is quite competitive. Some college departments (philologist, foreign languages-especially English, law, journalism) have dozens of applicants for one prospective student's position. The same is true of medical and theatre institutes.
Higher education in Russia is partly free of charge or paid. In our country there is a three-stage higher education. The first stage is Bachelor of Science. The period of teaching is 4 years, and then two kinds of education go: Specialist and Master of Science.
College students with good grades were rewarded with a modest stipend. All institutions of higher learning were subsidized by the government. Now that the country is changing into a market-place economy, the system of education is also bound to undergo profound changes.
Task 1. Answer these questions:
1. What are the stages of compulsory schooling in Russia?
2. Do children in Russia have to pay for education?
3. What subjects do pupils study at school?
4. What can young people do after finishing the 9-th form?
5. What subjects do young people study at technical schools and at colleges?
6. What is higher education in Russia characterized by?
7. What kinds of higher institutions are there in Russia?
8. What do higher education institutions in Russia require for admission?
9. What is the period of teaching in higher institutions in Russia?
10. What degree does high school lead to?
Taganrog State University of Radio Engineering
Taganrog State University of Radio Engineering is the institution of higher education of federal subordination with its own legal status that offers the professional educational programs of undergraduate, graduate, additional professional education and pre-university training. It was established in 1952.
Nowadays Taganrog State University of Radio Engineering is the leading Russian University that specializes in spheres of Radio Engineering and Telecommunications, Computer Science and Electronics.
The University is academic-scientific-industrial institution that has 6 Colleges of Daytime Education, a College of Correspondent Studies, a College of Continued Education, the Municipal Lyceum, the Centre of the pre-university training, 35 Departments, scientific-technical literature library, the Centre of Continued Education, Research Institute and Bureaus.
There are 6000 students studying at 8 Colleges of the University, about 5000 students are studying at Daytime Colleges.
The additional professional education (including the second higher education) is performed at Interregional Center of Continued Education, founded in 1994.
The system of individual student's creative thinking with the rating mark on the input, current, intervening and final popularity rating controls is realized in the university. The library's collection compiles more than one million issues.
The University has six comfortable hostels. It allows, in general, satisfying the non-resident students of university with accommodation.
There is a medical room at the University, where all the students and the faculties of university can be provided with primary medical care. When there are quite serious health problems, people are sent to specialized clinics of the town or regional centre.
The University's sports and recreational centres are situated on the coast of the Black Sea and in the Caucasus Mountains.
Sport Club and the Department of Physical Education conduct the work to form the healthy mode of life of students and university staff.
Classes of athletics, gymnastics, volleyball, basketball, wrestling, judo, aerobics and table tennis, shooting are conducted in sport groups of the University. Sportsmen of university traditionally show high results in yachting and mini-football (soccer). They have won regional and Russian competitions.
There are about 200 students and 15 creative collectives in the Student University Club. Each College has a student amateur theatre. Disco parties and concerts are regularly held for students and staff there. Collectives of amateur art performance became prizewinners and winners of different festivals and competitions. The work of these collectives gives an opportunity to rest, to relax after classes, and to get a charge of vivacity and good mood.
There is a transmitting telecompany "University", 26-channel that has functioned since October 2000. Telecentre transmits news of the University life, but also various interesting musical surveys, musical news, and just good music.
Task 1. Answer these questions:
1. When was Taganrog State University of Radio Engineering founded?
2. How many colleges does it have?
3. What is special about control system in this university?
4. What can you say about student’s social life?
5. Where can they have a rest during winter and summer holidays?
6. How do students spend their free time?
7. What can you say about telecompany “University”?
All British children must stay at school from the age of 5 until they are 16. Many of them stay longer and take final examinations when they are 17 or 18. There were different types of state secondary schools and at the age of 11 children went to different schools in accordance with the results of the tests.
State schools are divided into the following types:
Grammar schools. Children who go to grammar schools are usually those who show a preference for academic subjects, although many grammar schools now also have some technical courses.
Technical schools. Some children go to technical schools. Most courses there are either commercial or technical.
Modern Schools. Boys and girls who are interested in working with their hands and learning in a practical way can go to a technical school and learn some trade.
Comprehensive schools. These schools usually combine all types of secondary education. They have physics, chemistry, biology laboratories, machine workshops for metal and woodwork and also geography, history and art departments, commercial and domestic courses.
There are also many schools which the State does not control. They are private schools. They charge fees for educating children, and many of them are boarding schools, at which pupils live during the term time.
After leaving school many young people go to colleges of further education.
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