WORD COMBINATIONS - Notes
I'd (he'd, etc) = I would (he would, etc) like (to do sth)
мне (ему и т. п.) хотелось бы (что-н сделать)
show sb around (about) (a factory, a place, a town, etc)
показать кому-н завод (город и т. п.)
отвести, отозвать кого-н в сторону
восторгаться, восхищаться (кем-н/чем-н)
то и дело, время от времени
1. решить, разрешить что-н; 2. разработать что-н
(вот и) всё; вот именно
Ex 1 Answer the following questions.
1. When did Chaplin first meet Professor Einstein? 2. What was Professor Einstein doing in California? 3. How did Chaplin learn that Professor Einstein would like to meet him? 4. Why was he so thrilled by the invitation? 5. What made Chaplin believe that Mrs Einstein enjoyed being the wife of the great man? 6. What happened while the Professor was being shown around the studio? 7. Why were so few people invited to dinner at Chaplin's house? 8. What story did Mrs Einstein tell Chaplin at dinner? 9. How did Mrs Einstein immediately know that something was troubling her husband when he came down to breakfast on the morning the theory of relativity first came to his mind? 10. Why did the Doctor only mention the fact that he had a marvelous idea? 11. Why couldn't he tell his wife more about it? 12. Why didn't Einstein want anyone to disturb him while he was working out the problem? 13. How long did it take the scientist to work it out? 14. How much truth was there about the discovery in the story told by Mrs Einstein to Chaplin?
Ex 2 Look through the text once again, and:
1. See if you can prove that Ch. Chaplin is telling the story (i) seriously; (ii) humorously. 2. Explain why Ch. Chaplin chose to tell the story of the world's greatest discovery in physics as related by Mrs Einstein. 3. Say what picture you get of (i) Mrs Einstein; (ii) Professor Einstein; (iii) the narrator.
Ex 3 Find in the text the English for the following phrases, and use them in retelling and discussing the text.
впервые познакомиться с кем-н; великий ученый; читать лекции; с радостью принять приглашение; встретиться на обеде; великий физик; даже не пытаться скрывать что-н; показывать кому-н студию; отвести кого-н в сторону; быть в восторге; теория относительности; прийти в голову; как обычно; почти не притронуться к еде; почувствовать что-то неладное; чудесная (великолепная) мысль; подняться наверх в кабинет; совершать моцион; наконец; выглядеть бледным и усталым; держать в руке два листа бумаги; положить на стол.
KEY STRUCTURES AND WORD STUDY
Ex 4 Give the four forms of the following verbs.
meet, say, speak, hide, show, take, think, drink, make, send, hold.
Ex 5 Make up five groups of three words associated in meaning or area of usage.
Ex 6 In the following groups of words, pick out the word which, in your opinion, is the most general in meaning.
(a) party, entertainment, dinner party, affair^ gathering, ball, reception, luncheon, social.
(b) chat, talk, conversation, discussion, debate, conference, dialogue, interview.
Ex 7 Complete the following, choosing a suitable word from the list.
slice, box, cake (tablet), bar, bottle (carton), suit, length, lump, pack, pair
1. cards. 2. material. 3. matches. 4. gloves. 5. sugar. 6. cake. 7. chocolate. 8. soap. 9. clothes. 10. milk.
Ex 8 Change the meaning of the sentences to the opposite adding the prefix 'dis-' to the words in bold type and making other necessary changes. Translate the sentences into Russian.
1. She was
with the arrangement. 2. He
in our town two years ago and at that time his
made a great noise. 3. I don't see how you could
her story. 4. We
on some questions. 5. I can't say I
the idea. 6. This is what I call an
Ex 9 Recast the sentences, using verbs instead of nouns and phrases in bold type. Make other necessary changes.
1. At the gate the car
came to a stop.
2. Nobody will hear you if you
speak in a whisper.
3. What's the
felt a light touch
on my shoulder and turned round. 5. I hear he has published two stories in big magazines this month. That's a nice
for a young writer. 6. For what day do they plan their
to town? 7. His pictures
have been on show
at the National Gallery.
made the discovery
that lightning is electricity? 2. Who will help you with the
for the conference? 3. Nobody wanted you to
make a quick decision.
4. Have you heard of his
to take part in the match yet? 5. The new bridge is the
of the young engineer. 6. These books
are on sale
in the book shop at the corner. 7. We
had little choice
in the matter. 8. She always
makes her appearance
when she is least of all expected.
Ex 10 In the following groups of sentences, explain the meaning of the words in bold type; say which phrase is used literally and which has a figurative meaning. Translate them into Russian.
1. (i) I called at his office yesterday, but
found him out.
(ii) He was unable to
the answer. 2. (i) The secretary
several sheets of paper and prepared to make notes, (ii) He called every Saturday night to
the girl to dinner or, perhaps, to a dance. 3. (i) He
his stamp album and proudly showed his latest buy. (ii) The discussion
all the different ideas that we had on the matter. (iii) I'm sure that a study of the problem will
many surprising things. 4. (i) Are you
with me? (ii) When did the book
? (iii) It
that she knew the truth all the time. 5. (i) She smiled and
her hand to me. (ii) My opponent was an expert chess-player and I didn't believe I could
against him much longer.
Ex 11 Translate the following sentences into English, using a different phrasal verb in each.
work out (2), sell out, think out, hand out, help out, hear out
1. План был хорошо
2. Тетради были
просмотрены и снова возвращены преподавателю. 3. Она попросила меня
ее. 4. Как всегда, он надеялся, что кто-нибудь
его. 5. Прошло несколько дней, прежде чем было
решение. 6. Пока еще трудно сказать, сколько времени у него уйдет на то, чтобы
тему. 7. Словарь был
менее чем за неделю.
Ех 12 Compare the meaning of the words in bold type with words of the same root in Russian.
1. There are
2. Scientists think that only the
3. Without sea there is no life, no weather, no
The sea makes our
neither very hot nor very cold. 4. Great
has been made in
heavy work in
5. In building work new
are being used to
work. 6. In oil industry
7. New types of
electrical control-regulating apparatus
and for scientific work have been
8. The radio was born in Russia. On May 7, 1895 at a meeting of the Russian
and Chemical Society in St Petersburg the first
in the world was
by the great Russian scientist A. S. Popov. 9. The world's first
of oil at high temperature was
in Russia. The
of the cracking
was worked out by A. A. Letny, a Russian
in 1875. 10. The world's first
built by A. F. Mozhaisky, rose into the air in Russia in 1882. 11. The
building of the
Museum of the Academy of Science, which was founded in the time of Peter I, has one of the world's richest
Ex 13 Fill in the blanks with 'hard' or 'hardly'.
1. It — ever snows in this part of the country. 2. It's a — question. She'll — know the answer. 3. The man spoke a very strange kind of Russian. I could — understand him. 4. The work was too — for Carrie. When she left the shop in the evening she was so tired that she could — move. 5. What do you mean by saying that you have — any money left? 6. The girl was so excited that she — knew what she was saying. 7. The boy had had a — life. His parents had been killed in the war when he was — eight.
Ex 14 Translate the following sentences, using 'keep' or 'hold' according to the sense.
1. Где он
марки? 2. Ребенок упадет, если вы не будете
его за руку. 3. Он всегда
комнату в чистоте. 4.
правой стороны! 5. Он все еще
первое место по стрельбе? 6. Вы всегда
свое слово? 7. Как вы можете
все эти факты в голове? 8. Он
сигарету в руке, но не курил. 9. Не выпускайте детей на улицу,
их дома. Сегодня сильный мороз. 10. Не
продукты долго в холодильнике.
Ех 15 Translate the following sentences, using 'receive', 'accept' or 'take' according to the sense.
очень тепло. 2. Новый проект молодого архитектора был
на конкурс. 3. Они еще не
никакого решения до первому вопросу. 4. Не думаю, что он
ваши слова серьезно. 5. Недавно наш институт
делегацию студентов из Латинской Америки. 6. — Почему вы не хотите
участие в экскурсии? — Я себя что-то плохо чувствую. 7. Их не
так как было уже поздно и рабочий день закончился. 8. —Почему не
вашу Статью? — В ней есть ряд ошибок. Мне надо их исправить. 9. Его
как старого друга. 10. Они с готовностью
наш совет. 11. Благодарим за ваше приглашение, но мы не можем
его. Мы уезжаем.
Ех 16 Paraphrase the following sentences according to the model.
After he drank
coffee, he went to the piano and started to play.
coffee, he went to the piano and started to play.
1. After he spent a month in the mountains, he was in good form again. 2. After they thought the matter over, they took a decision. 3. After he had travelled all over the country, he sat down to write a book. 4. They came to an agreement after they had argued for some time. 5. After he had arranged his affairs, he went on a holiday. 6. After the family moved in, they started to make preparations for a house-warming party.
Ex 17 Study the following phrases and (a) recall the sentences in which they are used in the text, (b) use them in sentences of your own.
a place (party); meet
a place (for lunch); show sb
a place; take sb
have a chat (talk, walk, etc)
one's mind; work sth
one's work; hold (have) sth
Ex 18 Fill in the blanks with prepositions or adverbs.
1. "I don't see what's wrong — my whispering a few words — your ear?" "You mustn't do a thing like that with other people present." 2. I don't know yet what to do, but we shall work something —, I am sure. 3. I wonder if you could meet me — the self-service cafeteria — lunch — half an hour? I'd like to have a chat — you. 4. There hardly passes a day without the boy getting — some kind — trouble. 5. She invited us — her place promising that there would be only her family — dinner. 6. I am not surprised — all that he has so much trouble — his car; he hardly knows a thing — cars and motors. 7. If you are afraid that you may forget something, make a note — it. 8. He told us how everything had happened, but still we felt that he was hiding something — us. 9. The telephone started ringing and she reached — it without getting — — the sofa. 10. She was very proud — her son and could hardly wait to see him returning home after an absence — three years. 11. The party is to be held — the biggest hall — the town; it is to be the kind — affair one remembers the rest — his life. 12. I wonder why he hasn't mentioned — you that — first there was a lot of trouble — the new machine. 13. I really don't see how I can get you — — trouble. 14. Your love of excitement is going to get you — trouble some day. 15. His picture was accepted — the exhibition.
You may remember that I was invited — N. to lecture — the young gentlemen of the University there. — the afternoon of that day I was having a chat — one of the young men who some time before the lecture had shown me — the place. Before the lecture he took me — and said he had an uncle who had never laughed or smiled — the past few years. And with tears — his eyes this young man said, "Oh, if I could only see him laugh once more!"
I was touched. I said I would do my best and work something —. I would try to make him laugh or cry. "I have some jokes — the lecture that will make him laugh and I've got some others that will make him cry or kill him."
He brought his uncle and placed him — the hall full — people right — front — me. I started — simple jokes, then I shot — him old jokes. I threw — him all kinds — jokes that came — my mind, but I never moved him once.
I was surprised. I closed the lecture — last and sat — tired.
"What's the matter — that old man?" I asked the president. "He never laughed or cried once."
"Why, he never heard a thing! The old man has been deaf — years."
(After "How I was Sold in Newark" by Mark Twain)
Ex 19 Fill in the blanks with a suitable word. Use the correct form. Translate the sentences into Russian.
disturb (2), accept, trouble n (2), hide, hold v, touch v (2), reach v (2), appear, discover (2), law, proud (2), hardly
1. The — of gravitation which was — by the English physicist Isaac Newton made a revolution in science. 2. When the news that Tutankhamen's body had been found — the world, newspaper reporters — in large numbers in Luxor. 3. Not a sound was heard. Nothing — the quiet of the place. 4. When the mistake was — it was already too late for anything. 5. The children were not to — the dog, not before it was washed at least. 6. When she finished her story she repeated once again she had nothing to — from us and if we chose to disbelieve her, it was our own business. 7. The Professor said he would be busy in his laboratory and did not want anyone to — him there. 8. I could see the boy was having a bad time but he was too — to ask for help. 9. The question was rather unexpected and she — knew what to say. 10. The girl sitting opposite me in the compartment was — an open book but I clearly saw that her thoughts were somewhere else. 11. "Home at last!" we sang out happily when we felt the plane — ground at the airport. 12. He readily agreed to buy a few things for me. It would be no — at all, he said. He would be shopping anyway. 13. The hour was getting late but no decision had been — yet. 14. You cannot do anything about facts, you can only— them. 15. As far as I can see, the only —with you is that it always takes you years to make up your mind. 16. He was extremely — that he had been chosen to open the conference.
Ex 20 Replace the Russian words and phrases by suitable English equivalents in the correct form. Retell the passage.
Michael Faraday was born in London in 1791 of a poor family, and as a boy he did not learn much.
In 1804, when he was thirteen, he got some work in a book-seller's shop. He lived among books, and he (начал) to read some of them. The boy could not read every book in the shop because he was busy and had not much time. So he began (выбирать) the books which he liked best. He soon (обнаружил) that his main interest was in (науке), and especially in electricity. (Как всякий истинный ученый) Faraday wanted to make experiments, but he had too little money.
Faraday heard of talks on science which were being given by one of the greatest (ученых) of the time. Sir Humphry Davy. As he sat and listened to the great man he (делал записи). Faraday wanted to give his life to (науке), so he wrote a letter to Sir Humphry Davy and asked for his help.
Sir Humphry (пригласил) Faraday to come to see him, and gave him some (научную работу) to do. Faraday (был в восторге). His work at first was only to wash and (готовить) all the things which Davy and his fellow-scientists were to use in their experiments, but he (проводил много времени с учеными) and could listen to what they said, and he (мог наблюдать их за работой).
Sir Humphry sometimes (путешествовал) in Europe, where he went to meet the great (ученые) of other countries, and one day he (решил) to make another of these trips. He asked Faraday if he (хотел бы), to come with him.
Faraday, of course, was thrilled and (с радостью принял приглашение). He had never been more than a few miles from London in his life.
Faraday (получил большое удовольствие от) his time in Europe, but he was not really sorry at the end of the journey because he was now able to (продолжить свою собственную работу) and experiments in England.
He was wondering whether a magnet could (кaким-то образом) be made to give an electric current. Faraday (был совершенно уверен) that a current could be made, but he had very little time for experiments. His outside work (занимала все его время). Не could stop his outside work, of course, but if he did so, he would lose most of the £ 1,200 a year which he (получал). Не had to (выбирать) between (наукой) and money, and he (выбрал науку).
At first he was quite unable to make an electric current with his magnets. But one day (ему в голову пришла великолепная мысль). Не (провел) the magnet near the wire. And then he got what he wanted: an electric current in the wire. Of course, he still had to (разработать идею).
After (нескольких) experiments (этого рода) he made a machine. It was the beginning of all the great machines that make electricity today. All (современные) turbines are made on the principles that (были разработаны) by Faraday. His (открытие) was the beginning of the electrical age, which (изменил) the face of the earth.
(After "Who Did It First" by G. C. Thornley)
Ex 21 Speak on the following topics, using the words and phrases given below.
Professor Einstein Conies on a Visit to California
a famous scientist; a great physicist; be famous for; theories of relativity; make many important discoveries; make a revolution in physics; be invited to some place.
Chaplin Meets the Einsteins
a telephone call; a surprise; receive an invitation to lunch; be thrilled; be eager to meet sb; accept the invitation gladly; meet the Professor, his wife; meet for lunch; be proud (of); enjoy being the wife of the great man; be unable to hide one's feelings.
Chaplin Invites the Professor to his House
take sb aside; whisper sth into sb's ear; give sb an excellent idea; be delighted with the idea; admire sb greatly; invite to dinner; make the necessary arrangements (for); a small affair; have a nice, quiet chat (talk).
The Story of the Discovery as Told by Mrs Einstein
come down for breakfast; as usual; wear a dressing-gown; notice sth unusual about sb; hardly touch a thing; be lost in thought; immediately see that sth is wrong; be upset; wonder what is troubling a person; ask what the matter is; be eager to learn sth; refuse to say anything; except; have a wonderful (marvelous) idea; go up to one's study; not disturb sb in his work; spend all one's time in the study working hard; work sth out; rise early; walk a little for exercise; make notes; remain in one's room for days; at last; appear; hold in one's hand; have the whole theory on two sheets of paper.
Ex 22 Test translation.
1. Открытия, которые были сделаны столетия назад, продолжают играть большую роль в современной науке. 2. В Сибири недавно были открыты месторождения природного газа. 3. Когда мы обнаружили, что сбились с пути, было уже поздно. Нам пришлось развести костер и заночевать в лесу. 4. Он давно интересуется книгами о научных открытиях. Не удивительно, что он знает не только имена многих ученых, но и открытия, которые они сделали. 5. Я так спешил, что оставил все деньги дома..6. Почему бы не пригласить их поехать вместе с нами в отпуск? Ч уверен, что они с удовольствием согласятся. 7. Теперь уже трудно вспомнить, кому эта идея пришла в голову. 8. Боюсь, что директор не сможет вас завтра принять. Он весь день будет занят на конференции. 9. Никто не удивился, когда картину молодого художника приняли на выставку. 10. Я получил приглашение на вечер, но не смогу пойти. Я завтра уезжаю. 11. Институт может гордиться своей баскетбольной командой. Она заняла первое место. 12. Они разговаривали шепотом, так как было поздно и в доме все спали. 13. Он едва проронил слово за весь вечер. Он был чем-то расстроен. 14. Все были глубоко тронуты его рассказом. Он говорил с чувством, и его слушали с большим интересом. 15. Я очень расстроился, когда услышал, что у него неприятности. Ты случайно не знаешь, в чем там дело? 16. Этот ребенок ужасно избалован и всегда доставляет много хлопот. 17. Когда они наконец добрались до лагеря, они чувствовали себя очень усталыми. 18. Мне бы хотелось поговорить с ним по этому вопросу сегодня. 19. Когда вы переходите улицу, посмотрите сначала налево, а дойдя до середины дороги, посмотрите направо. 20. Надеюсь, что я вам не помешаю, если я останусь здесь на несколько минут. 21. Мне не хотелось беспокоить его в такой поздний час, но у меня не было иного выхода. Мне очень нужен был его совет. 22. Его появление было для нас неожиданным. 23. План научной работы уже разработан и будет обсуждаться на следующем заседании.